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Shear Stress Regulates Endothelial Microparticle Release

Abstract : Rationale: Endothelial activation and apoptosis release membrane-shed microparticles (EMP) that emerge as important biological effectors. Objective: Because laminar shear stress (SS) is a major physiological regulator of endothelial survival, we tested the hypothesis that SS regulates EMP release. Methods and Results: EMP levels were quantified by flow cytometry in medium of endothelial cells subjected to low or high SS (2 and 20 dyne/cm 2 ). EMP levels augmented with time in low SS conditions compared with high SS conditions. This effect was sensitive to extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2) and Rho kinases inhibitors but unaffected by caspase inhibitors. Low SS-stimulated EMP release was associated with increased endothelial Rho kinases and ERK1/2 activities and cytoskeletal reorganization. Overexpression of constitutively active RhoA stimulated EMP release under high SS. We also examined the effect of nitric oxide (NO) in mediating SS effects. L-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), but not D-NG-nitroarginine methyl ester, increased high SS-induced EMP levels by 3-fold, whereas the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) decreased it. L-NAME and SNAP did not affect Rho kinases and ERK1/2 activities. Then, we investigated NO effect on membrane remodeling because microparticle release is abolished in ABCA1-deficient cells. ABCA1 expression, which was greater under low SS than under high SS, was augmented by L-NAME under high SS and decreased by SNAP under low SS conditions. Conclusions: Altogether, these results demonstrate that sustained atheroprone low SS stimulates EMP release through activation of Rho kinases and ERK1/2 pathways, whereas atheroprotective high SS limits EMP release in a NO-dependent regulation of ABCA1 expression and of cytoskeletal reorganization. These findings, therefore, identify endothelial SS as a physiological regulator of microparticle release.
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Submitted on : Friday, October 8, 2021 - 4:48:55 PM
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Shear Stress Regulates Endothe...
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Anne-Clémence Vion, Bhama Ramkhelawon, Xavier Loyer, Gilles Chironi, Cecile Devue, et al.. Shear Stress Regulates Endothelial Microparticle Release. Circulation Research, American Heart Association, 2013, 112 (10), pp.1323-1333. ⟨10.1161/CIRCRESAHA.112.300818⟩. ⟨hal-03367508⟩



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